The comprehensive in vitro proteasome assay (CIPA) is a mechanism-based methodology for evaluating enzyme potentiality for non-surgical drugs. The CIPA assay first determines in silico effects on seven randomly chosen human cardiac proteins measured using two proteins, ECG and GSR. The second CIPA assay measures results in human embryonic cardiomyocyte (hEC-MC) in culture. The third tests conclusions based on biochemical data in, and searches for potentially missed effects by pharmacological and genetic studies of non-donor cells of the heart. Both the first and third CIPA assays have yielded important data on gene regulation by chemical and genetic means.
How Is The CIPA Assay Being Actively Used
Since the CIPA assay first appeared in clinical trials in 2021, there have been many advancements in the data collection and analysis. For example, enzyme-linked immunosorbent cytotoxicity (ELISA, R&D) using ELISA for detecting small molecule antigens associated with pathogenic bacteria has produced important data on novel allergy and autoimmunity. Furthermore, R&D has been investigating the effect of azathioprine on inflammatory diseases using cytokine receptor T cells.
Recently, there has been an innovative advancement in the drug development process using CIPA and pH-guided viral intracerebroventricular infusion (IVF). In this procedure, drug development companies use a high dose of intravenous immune complexes in conjunction with a micro-implantation of purified virus-delivery constructs. The immune complexes are delivered via the IVF into precise regions of the heart muscle. This method has yielded promising results in terms of drug effectiveness, safety, and early cessation of complications such as life-threatening ventricular tachycardia. Due to its safety and efficacy, CIPA is now being employed in clinical trials in the cardiovascular field, including pre-clinical and phase I trials. Importantly, this technology provides a convenient method to deliver drugs in bulk to the cardiovascular system.
How Does CIPA Work With Cardiac Health?
It should be noted that CIPA does not directly stimulate cardiac action potential, nor does it change the expression of the membrane currents in cardiac ion channels. This method has enabled drug companies to circumvent the need for clinical trials in which drug effects on the target organ are observed. For example, in pre-clinical studies, the effects of ketoconazole, quercetin, sucralfate, niacin, and resveratrol have been examined in various cancer models using primary human cancer cell lines. Although these compounds did not show significant effects in the primary cell lines, they were highly effective in the in vitro assays and in the in-vitro fertilization of test animals. Therefore, CIPA can effectively reduce the cost and time associated with clinical trials.
The CIPA assay is one of the standard tests conducted early in the drug development process in order to provide data to the investigators and healthcare professionals regarding the target organ of the treatment compound. Prior to the advent of CIPA standard assays were unable to yield reliable data on the target organ of agents. CIPA assays allow researchers to measure changes in cellular physiology and expression while performing simple biopsies.
These data are then compared to data obtained from clinical trials in order to determine the efficacy and safety of novel agents. In addition, CIPA assays allow for the monitoring of cell-to-cell and tissue-to-tissue transfer processes during drug development. This makes CIPA an important step in the drug development process due to the increased efficiency in terms of results and less time and effort required for monitoring the target organ.
How Is It Being Used?
CIPA has also been found to be effective in the field of cardiovascular health. It has been used to monitor the response of patients to various types of anti-hypertensive drugs, particularly diuretics. Biomarkers have been commonly reported in clinical trials to detect the potential for cardiogenic heart disease and to detect the existence of arrhythmias. These biomarkers have proved to be useful in the detection and treatment of various forms of heart disease, particularly heart failure and arrhythmias. Thus, CIPA is an important measure in the field of cardiac health.